نوع مقاله : علمی

نویسنده

دانشیار جامعه شناسی پژوهشکدة امام خمینی و انقلاب اسلامی

10.22034/jss.2020.242374

چکیده

گفتارها و کردارها، عناصر اصلی فعالیت انسانهـا در حیـات اجتمـاعی شـان هسـتند و چگونگی ارتباط این دو، همـواره یکـی از دغدغـه هـای اصـلی بـرای دانشـمندان علـوم اجتماعی، بهویژه جامعه شناسان، در جهت درک و تبیـین کـنشهـای اجتمـاعی بـوده است. در این راستا، مشکل ناهمسازی گفتارها با کردارها، مسـئله ای روششـناختی بـا نتایج آشکار برای تحقیقات جامعـه شـناختی بـوده اسـت؛ چـون رایـجتـرین روشهـا و تکنیکهای تحقیق مورد استفادة جامعهشناسان (یعنی پیمایشها و مصاحبه ها) بر این فرضِ اثباتنشده استوارند که تطابقی نسبی میان پاسخهای افراد به سـؤالات پژوهشـی درخصوص کردارهایشان و کردار واقعی آنان در حیات اجتماعی وجـود خواهـد داشـت. این مقاله به بررسی دلالتهـای روششناسـانة ایـن اسـتدلال برخـی جامعـه شناسـان پرداخته است مبنی بر اینکه چیزی که مردم میگویند، غالباً پیشبینی ضعیفی است از چیزی که عملاً انجام میدهند. درنتیجه، پیمایشگران و مصاحبه گرانی که ادعاهایشـان را روی اظهارات کلامی افراد استوار میسازند، باید روشن کنند که به تحلیل آن چیزی که مردم واقعاً انجام میدهند نمیپردازند، بلکه فقط به تحلیل آن چیزی میپردازند که مردم ادعا کرده اند که انجام مـیدهنـد؛ مگـر آنکـه نشـان دهنـد کـه اظهـارات مـردم درخصوص انجام یک کردار خاص، قدرت پیشبینی کنندگی آن کردار یارفتار را دارد.

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